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Computer Terminologies

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What is Amazon EC2 ?

Amazon EC2 stands for Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud which is part of AWS or Amazon Web Services. AWS is’s cloud platform. Amazon EC2 allows users to rent virtual servers on which to run their own websites, servers, or web apps.

What is Apache Hadoop ?

Apache Hadoop is an open-source framework that supports data-intensive distributed applications. It enables applications to work with lots of computation-independent computers and petabytes of data. It was derived from Google’s MapReduce and Google File System papers.

What is BSD ?

BSD is a UNIX OS developed by UC Berkeley from 1977-1995. Today, “BSD” refers to any of the BSD descendants of the family of Unix-like OSes. Though these proprietary BSD derivatives were largely superseded by UNIX System V Release 4 and OSF/1 systems in the 1990s (both of which incorporated BSD code and are the basis of other modern Unix systems), later BSD releases provided a basis for several open source development projects, e.g. FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD or DragonFly, which have been incorporated in modern proprietary OS, e.g the TCP/IP networking code in Windows or the foundation of Apple’s Mac OS X.

What is Baidu ?

Baidu is a Chinese language search engine for websites, audio files, and images. It was established in 2000 by Robin Li and Eric Xu—Chinese nationals who have studied and worked overseas. It offers 57 search and community services including Baidu Baike, which is an online collaborative encyclopedia, and a searchable discussion forum. Inc. is registered in the Cayman Islands.

What is a Sender Policy Framework Record ?

A Sender Policy Framework Record is an email validation system which prevents spam by detecting email spoofing through the verification of the sender’s IP addresses. It allows administrators to specify which hosts are allowed to send mail from a given domain by creating a specific SPF or TXT record in the DNS. Mail exchangers use the DNS to check if a mail from a given domain is being sent by a host approved by that domain’s administrators. It gets the “mail from” address in the SMTP instead of the “mail from” field.

What is Representational State Transfer ?

Representational State Transfer or “Rest” is a software architecture for the World Wide Web. In Rest, everything is a resource which it manipulates with simple commands. Examples of these commands are GET to get the resource, PUT to create and edit a resource, DELETE to delete a resource, and POST to submit data to the resource.

What is OpenGL ?

OpenGL is a cross-language, cross-platform specification for 2D and 3D computer graphics. It is an alternative to DirectX. Its interface consists of over 250 different function calls which can be used to draw complex three-dimensional scenes from simple primitives. It was developed by Silicon Graphics in 1992 and is widely used in computer-aided-design, virtual reality, scientific visualization, information visualization, flight simulation, and video games.

What is a kernel ?

A kernel is the central component of most computer operating systems. It is a bridge between applications and the actual data processing done at the hardware level. The kernel has many responsibilities. It manages the system’s resources. It provides services to start and stop programs. It handles the file system and other “low level” tasks that most programs share. It schedules access to hardware to avoid conflicts if two programs try to access the same resource or device simultaneously. To mediate such access, the kernel was given special rights on the system, leading to the division between user-space and kernel-space

What is UNIX ?

UNIX is a portable, multi-tasking, and multi-user system. Unix systems are characterized by Unix philosophy: the use of plain text for storing data; a hierarchical file system; treating devices as files; and the use of many small programs that can be strung together through a command line interpreter using pipes, as opposed to using a single monolithic program that includes all of the same functionality.

What is a thread ?

A thread is a task within a process. A thread of execution is the smallest unit of processing that can be scheduled by an OS. Thread and process implementation differs with every OS. Multiple threads can exist within the same process

What is Cross-Site Scripting ?

Cross-Site Scripting is a type of computer vulnerability found in web applications. It enables attackers to inject client-side script into web pages which may be used by attackers to bypass access controls. According to Symantec, cross-site scripting on websites accounted for roughly 80.5% of all security vulnerabilities as of 2007. Their effect may range from a petty nuisance to a significant security risk, depending on the data handled by the website.

What is MPEG-4 ?

MPEG-4 is a compression standard for audio and video that achieves higher compression than MPEG-2. In complex usage, the MPEG-4 decoder effectively becomes a rendering processor which describes three-dimensional shapes and surface texture from the compressed bitstream. It supports Intellectual Property Management and Protection, which allows proprietary technologies to manage and protect content such as in digital rights management.

What is UTF-8 ?

UTF-8 is a multibyte character encoding for Unicode. It can represent every character in the Unicode character set. It is backward-compatible with ASCII. It has become the dominant character encoding for the World-Wide Web. The Internet Engineering Task Force requires all Internet protocols to identify the encoding used for character data, and the supported character encodings must include UTF-8. The Internet Mail Consortium recommends that all e‑mail programs be able to display and create mail using UTF-8. UTF-8 is also the default character encoding in many operating systems, programming languages, APIs, and software applications.

What are Cascading Style Sheets?

Cascading Style Sheets or CSS was developed in 1997, as a way for web developers to define the look and feel of their Web pages. It separated web content from the design so that the HTML could function as the markup of the content, without worrying about the content’s design and layout. CSS didn’t gain popularity until the year 2000, when web browsers began using more fonts and colors. Now, all modern browsers support all of CSS Level 1, most of CSS Level 2, and some aspects of CSS Level 3.

What is Object-oriented programming?

Object-oriented programming is a programming paradigm that represents concepts as “objects” that have data fields or attributes and associated procedures known as methods. Objects are instances of classes and are used to interact with other objects to design applications and computer programs. Object-oriented programming began in the 1960’s. As hardware and software became more complex, software manageability became a concern. Researchers studied ways to maintain software quality and developed object-oriented programming to address this problem by using discrete, reusable units of programming logic.

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